The Meteoric Rise of Life on Earth
One of the goals of astrobiology is to understand how life on Earth began. 2,500 years ago, Anaxagoras, a Greek philosopher, proposed a hypothesis called "panspermia" (Greek for "all seeds") which posited that all life, and indeed all things, originated from the combination of tiny seeds pervading the cosmos.
Astrobiologists at NASA and elsewhere are now seriously considering the possibility that life on Earth originated outside the planet and was brought into it by space debris impacting its surface over vast stretches of time. Recent discoveries are lending increasing support to the hypothesis of panspermia.
Researchers discovered a meteorite from Mars that was cool enough in its core when it reached Earth to support life-forms such as bacteria. Another group succeeded in reviving bacteria more than 250 million years old. In 2004 the Stardust Mission discovered a range of complex hydrocarbon molecules, the building blocks for life, inside Comet Wild 2.
In 2005 the Deep Impact mission discovered a mixture of organic and clay particles inside Comet Tempel 1. NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center, Houston, discovered organic materials that formed in the most distant reaches of the early Solar System preserved in the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite, a rare type of meteorite that is rich in organic (carbon-bearing) compounds.
The discovery of organic matter in meteorites is of considerable interest to scientists because the material is likely to have been formed at the dawn of the Solar System almost 4.6 billion years ago and may have seeded the early Earth with the building blocks of life. Scott Messenger, NASA space scientist, says "The organic globules most likely originated in the cold molecular cloud that gave birth to our Solar System, or at the outermost reaches of the early Solar System."
Mike Zolensky, NASA cosmic mineralogist, says "If, as we suspect, this type of meteorite has been falling onto Earth throughout its entire history, then the Earth was seeded with these organic globules at the same time life was first forming here." Presumably, all this "seeding" is still going on.
Meteorites represent primitive solar system material. Every day several hundred tons of meteoritic matter fall to Earth. Many asteroids originate from the asteroid belt, between Mars and Jupiter. Their orbits have large eccentricities and inclinations.
There is sufficient evidence that asteroids caused numerous craters to be formed on Earth when they impacted the planet's surface, including the Tunguska crater in Siberia in 1908, the Barringer meteorite crater in Arizona about 50,000 years ago and the crater north of the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico 65 million years ago. Comets have elliptical orbits and take varying lengths of time to orbit the Sun - some take 3 years, others may take hundreds of thousands of years.
Millions of comets are believed to form the Oort cloud which is beyond the orbit of Neptune and half the distance to the nearest star. Hence, they may originate from the farthest reaches of the solar neighborhood.
Dr Robert Foot of the University of Melbourne argues that some meteorites, such as the one that caused the Tunguska crater, may be composed of "mirror matter" (a component of dark matter where particles have a different parity from the particles tabulated under the physicists' Standard Model or what plasma metaphysics calls the "standard particles") and have impacted the Earth without leaving any ordinary matter fragments.
Is it possible that the space debris that seeded life on Earth contained dark matter? If so, it will revolutionize our theories of evolution. Let's review the facts. The first thing to determine is whether it is plausible that meteorites, asteroids and comets could actually harbor dark matter.
Why some Meteorites, Asteroids and Comets could contain Dark Matter
Our galaxy's dark matter halo is believed to outweigh its visible ordinary matter by more than 20 times. While the visible galaxy (a disk) is around 120,000 light-years across and about 1,000 light years thick, the dark halo (a sphere) may extend to more than 3 times that distance, beyond 300,000 to 400,000 light years out from the galactic center. In terms of volume, therefore, the halo is much larger than the visible galaxy.
The visible galaxy will be like a thin rotating compact disc sitting in the center of a large beach ball. Most of the matter in our galaxy is therefore composed of dark matter. Only a very small proportion is composed of ordinary matter.
The Sun and its entourage are currently wading through the Local Interstellar Cloud. It entered the Cloud about 100,000 years ago (just when our early human ancestors were moving out of Africa) and is expected to remain within it for another 10,000 to 20,000 years. Leo Blitz of the University of California and David Spergel of Princeton University believe that interstellar clouds harbor dark matter.
The shape of the rotation curve of the Milky Way was found to be flat to distances beyond the edge of the Milky Way's disk. The rotation curve is plotted with the velocity of the star on one axis and its distance from the galactic center (its radius) on another axis. Measurements show that after rising from zero in the center to about 200 km/s in the inner region, the rotation curve remained fairly constant; attaining velocities of between 200 km/s and 225 km/s, up to 15 kpc from the galactic center.
The Sun is about 8.5 kpc from the galactic center and its orbital speed around the galaxy is about 220 km/s. Its orbital speed is much faster than what would be expected at that distance from the galactic center within the visible galaxy, suggesting the direct effect of dark matter on the Sun.
The density of matter in the vicinity of the Sun can be estimated by sampling a uniform population of luminous stars that extends above the disk of the galaxy. The average velocities of the stars and the vertical distances they traverse above the disk provide a measure of the gravitational force that keeps these stars within the disk.
From the strength of this force the total density of matter can be estimated. Measurements indicate that the actual number of (visible) stars accounted for only half this density. This provides further evidence that there must be dark matter in the vicinity of the Sun to eliminate the shortfall and balance-out to the measured density.
It is conceivable, therefore, that comets which travel to the far reaches of the Solar System (beyond Neptune's orbit) and then to the opposite end, near to the Sun, accumulate dark matter as they sweep through the Solar System and beyond.
Meteorites and asteroids, similarly, collect some dark matter within the Solar System, as they sweep through their orbits. We would therefore expect the Earth to be impacted by space debris containing dark matter every day.
After falling into habitable zones; meteorites, asteroids and comets, containing both the dark and visible building blocks of life, generated the first single-celled and later multi-cellular life-forms which developed both ordinary and dark matter bodies that were coupled to each other.According to plasma metaphysics, dark matter consists largely of a plasma of very high energy super particles (sometimes of a different parity) - or "dark plasma".
Due to their very high energy levels (or different parities) these particles interacted only weakly with ordinary matter (in other words, there are only subtle interactions between the ordinary and dark matter bodies) or they do not interact at all with ordinary matter at extremely high energies.
It is reasonable to assume that the lower frequency (or energy) dark matter (which can be correlated to what metaphysicists call "physical-etheric matter") would have subtle interactions with the biochemical fields within the biological body whereas the higher frequency dark matter (which can be correlated with what metaphysicists call the "astral" and other even higher energy matter) may not interact directly with ordinary matter.
Meteorites which contain dark plasma generated the first bioplasma cells which were the precursors to the biochemical cells (as argued by Erzilia Lozneanu and Mircea Sanduloviciu of Cuza University in 2003; and inferred by V N Tsytovich and his colleagues of the Russian Academy of Science in 2007).
It has been shown that plasma can undergo self-organization as electronic charges become separated and the plasma becomes polarized. As argued by Tsytovich, the plasma cell acted as a mold or template for the formation of the biochemical cell.
This is consistent with the observation, often found in the metaphysical literature (for example Barbara Brennan and others), that the subtle bioplasma body provides the template for the morphogenesis of the biochemical body in 3+1 dimensional space.
This is also consistent with dark matter theories, which propose that dark matter provides the scaffolding for ordinary matter (as reported by Richard Massey, California Institute of Technology, and others). Physicist Chung Pei-Ma, an associate professor of astronomy at UC Berkeley, concludes that "the ghost universe of dark matter is a template for the visible universe".
While the carbon-based body was ordinarily visible, the dark matter body was invisible. It is conceivable that a series of invisible bodies, developing over a spectrum of energy levels and composed of dark matter, formed an invisible superstructure over the biological body. The higher energy bodies and the biological bodies then co-evolved as a composite during the lifetime of the carbon-based biological body.
When the biological bodies died, however, dark matter bodies continued to evolve on their own. At periodic intervals these older dark matter bodies (with accumulated memories) fused with the young dark matter counterpart bodies of embryonic biological bodies to continue their evolution with biological bodies.
The evolution of these dark matter bodies were therefore inter-twined with the evolution of biological bodies over vast stretches of time. The dark matter bodies of human beings have often been described as "subtle bodies" or "bioplasma bodies" in the metaphysical and off-mainstream scientific literature.
Role of Water is replaced by Liquid-Crystal Plasma
Liquid water is essential for biochemical life as an agent for transport and protein folding. Its high heat capacity, ability to remain a liquid over a wide temperature range and properties as a solvent ensures a stable and useful substrate for biochemical activities. Its importance, however, is relative to biochemical life - not electromagnetic life.
It is not necessary for electromagnetic life which uses magnetic fields to form structures and electric fields as agents of transport.Complex plasma (which is what bioplasma bodies are composed of, according to plasma metaphysics) can exist in a liquid-crystal state - similar to biological cells in the human body.
Particles in a liquid-crystal phase are free to move about in much the same way as in a liquid, but as they do so they remain oriented in a certain direction. This feature may make it superior to the properties of water - enabling liquid crystal bioplasma, polarized by magnetic and electric fields, to serve as an electronic matrix, a co-ordinate system and a template for the morphogenesis of the carbon-based fetus.
In this role, the symbiotic bioplasma body acts as a developmental catalyst for the carbon-based body.
Symbiotic Relationship between Plasma and Carbon Based Bodies
"Symbiosis" is a term used to describe a close ecological relationship between the individuals of two (or more) different species. Sometimes a symbiotic relationship benefits both species, sometimes one species benefits at the other's expense, and in other cases neither species benefits.
It has been observed by metaphysicists that the symbiotic relationship between the bioplasma and carbon-based bodies is one of "mutualism" where both species benefit.Dr. Robert Foot has suggested a coupling force between ordinary and mirror photons. He believes that one effect of this force is to make dark mirror matter intermittently visible as it travels through the atmosphere.
To generalize, plasma metaphysics hypothesizes that there are coupling forces between the carbon-based body and the invisible superstructure of bioplasma bodies which keeps them linked until any of the bodies die. This hypothesis can be cited as the Plasma-Carbon Symbiotic Life Forms hypothesis
(Really) Weird Plasma-Based Life Forms
Plasma metaphysics views the life-forms which have been described as "ghosts", "angels" and "deities" and other similar entities as weird plasma-based life-forms which are also evolving within Earth's dark matter counterparts.
As discussed in the author's article Angels, Ghosts, Deities and their Magnetic Plasma Bodies and book Our Invisible Bodies the appearance and properties of these entities, described by various observers, suggest a category of electromagnetic life forms that are not available for controlled examination because of limitations in current scientific instruments.
Much has already been written with respect to the anatomy and physiology of these plasma-based bodies derived from observations by metaphysicists and interpreted using current physics (see books and articles by Jay Alfred and others).
They could serve as basic models for further scientific research into weird life - a project that NASA has undertaken.
If NASA is serious about understanding the whole spectrum of weird life, maybe it should also search our own backyard. Weird life may not only be "out there" (in Jupiter and other gas giants, on the Sun and other stars) but it may very well be in your living room.
NASA's astrobiology team would need to categorize the life forms that have been described as ghosts, angels and deities as weird plasma-based life forms and study them within a scientific framework to the extent allowed by current technology.
Any confirmation of their existence would revolutionize our understanding of the scope of evolution at many different levels of existence, not just the biochemical level ... and, oh yes; it could have far reaching implications on our own existence, if any, after the death of our carbon-based bodies.